In its long 119 years of journey, Harley Davidson has continuously upgraded the engine. They have worked with the engine design, increased its power and displacement capacity, and introduced newer technologies for these engines. As a result, each upgrade has seen brilliant engineering. The ironhead and shovelhead engines are no exception.
Harley Davidson brought these two engines during the 1950s to improve their motorcycle performance. These two engines share many similarities. Thus, people are keen to compare ironhead vs. shovelhead engines for Harley motorcycles.
The ironhead engine first came into the scene in 1957. The shovelhead engine was seen in 1966. So, these two engines share a similar time frame. Likewise, they share almost identical technology and engineering.
We will go through their similarity and dissimilarity. Also, we will see which engine is comparatively better. So, Harley Davidson lovers, let’s see the shovelhead and ironhead engine discussion.
What Is Ironhead Engine?
Harley introduced the excellent ironhead engine in 1957. They discontinued the engine in 1985 when their Evo Engine came. So, it got its name from the materials used in its cylinder head. Yes, this engine has irons instead of aluminum in the cylinder head.
When Harley integrated the engine with their motorcycles, it immediately got the name. This engine was made for the compact yet powerful Sportster versions. It was a two cylinders engine. Plus, each cylinder had two valves.
The engine got three major upgrades during its stay in the market for almost 28 years. With each upgrade, the engine got improved specifications.
Ironhead 1957 Specifications
During the 1950s, most motorcycle manufacturers used alloy cast to manufacture the engine. Harley Davidson decided to go against the tide and choose cast iron for the engine’s cylinder head. They integrated the engine for their Sportster XL 1957 version. Later they continued the engine for all of their Sportster models till 1985.
One of the fundamental reasons for using cast iron instead of aluminum for the cylinder head was the leaky Panhead engine. The Panhead engine reported multiple leaking incidents during its journey. The research team found that the leak happened mainly due to the thin alloy material of the cylinder head. So, they replaced it with heavier and thicker cast iron.
As a result, the ironhead engine never had leakage problems. However, with the heavier and thicker cast iron cylinder head, the engine was bulkier than the Panhead ones.
Its valve angle was 90-degree. Also, it had a 40HP rating. It was slightly higher than the 38HP of the K engine. Thus, it had seen only a minor upgrade in the power segment. Finally, its compression ratio was 7:5:1.
Ironhead 1958 Specifications:
Only after introducing the ironhead engine in 1957 Harley Davidson came with a big update for 1958. In 1958, Harley brought their famous XLCH version of the Sportster models. It was a compact and faster version of the larger XL versions.
This engine delivered more torque and power despite being a stepped-down version. Thus, it was popular among youths who looked for robust and reliable engines. Its reliability and smoother performance helped the XLCH engine to beat its competitor English 750cc bikes. Also, it remains one of the bestselling engines Harley until now.
Ironhead 1972-1985 Specifications:
Harley continued their XLCH version of the Sportster motorcycle for the next 15 years. During this period, the ironhead engine had only improved power and torque. In 1972, Harley significantly improved as the ironhead engine reached 1000cc displacement capacity. It had 61 cubic inches of displacement facility, thanks to its 3.188 inches bores.
This development in the displacement capacity made this engine one of the most powerful at that time.
An important note:
Harley Davison remained under the ownership of the American Machine and Foundry (AMF) from 1969 to 1985. During this period ironhead engine saw significant changes only. It happened as the AMF didn’t allow major improvements.
What Is A Shovelhead Engine?
The shovelhead engine was introduced in 1966 as the Panhead engine became obsolete. The Panhead engine couldn’t meet the power and torque requirement of the Harley fans. So, the company had no chance but to upgrade it.
Following it, they brought the shovelhead engine. However, the engine showed many problems during its first few years. Many riders complained about engine overheating. It resulted in oil leakage. This oil leakage became so prominent that the engine would lose 1 quart of oil every 500 miles. As a result, the shovelhead engine ruined the reputation of Harley almost entirely.
The changes came when American Machine and Foundry (AMF) took over Harley Davidson. They used their funding to fix the shovelhead engine problem and improve its capacity. Sadly, the engine continued to encounter many problems. Thus, Harley’s shovelhead engine was never a significant venture, and it even took the company close to bankruptcy.
Its design had the following key changes:
- Its combustion chamber was made shallower than the Panhead engines
- Its exhaust and intake tubes had larger valve drops
- The valves and pistons were made stronger with better porting
These upgrades helped the engine deliver better torque and a deeper sound. As a result, the shovelhead engine was both loathed and appreciated for its mixed performance.
Its cylinder alignment was at a 45-degree angle. You will get the shovelhead engine in two different sizes. It includes:
- 80 cubic-inches (1310cc)
These two engines had many dissimilarities in specifications. If you want to know more about the engines, check the following specifications.
74 Inches Specifications:
The shovelhead engine’s 74 inches or 1200cc displacement capacity was a smaller version. It was named FL units. Harley discontinued the FL units in 1978. But, Harley introduced the FXS version for low-rider models.
80 Inches Specifications:
The bigger shovelhead engine had 80 inches or 1310cc of displacement capacity. Its bore and stroke diameters were 3.498 inches and 4.250 inches, respectively. This version of the shovelhead engine was named FLH. It, too, was discontinued in 1978.
The shovelhead versions after the 1980s had a 7:4:1 and 8:1 compression ratio.
Shovelhead Engine Power
Shovelhead engine had seen ups and downs in its power segment during its presence. Initially, it’s 8- inches version started with 5600RPM and 66HP. The horsepower dropped from 1970 to 1984 and reached 62HP. The peak RPM reached 5400 at that time.
In the 1978-1980 models, the horsepower of the shovelhead engine dropped further. It delivered only 60HP then. After that, the power increased again in the 1981-1984 versions. At that time shovelhead engine had seen 65HP power. But, it was still less potent than the first one.
Ironhead Vs. Shovelhead Engine Comparison
We discussed the major specifications and power upgrades for ironhead and shovelhead engines. So, which is a better engine?
This selection between shovelhead and ironhead engines is challenging. Also, it became tougher because the engines were integrated with different motorcycle models. So, we need to look at their performance and user reviews.
Regarding this, the ironhead engine always delivered better performance. Although it lacked power and torque, the ironhead engine was exceedingly consistent. It was free from the leakage problem of the previous Panhead engines. Thus, it didn’t see any oil and fluid loss. On top of it, it didn’t have any overheating problems either.
Furthermore, users had positive reviews about the ironhead engine’s performance and reliability. It might have got fewer improvements, but it always delivered consistent performance.
On the other side, the shovelhead engine from Harley Davidson was one of the worst engines of the company. It had seen extreme overheating and leakage problems. Thus, Harley users disliked the engine and even decreased sales. During 1974-1976, the engine saw a knocking-off problem. It caused overheating and blown-out gaskets.
So, the manufacturer had to drop its power to counter the problem.
Therefore, the comparison between ironhead vs. shovelhead engine has a clear answer. Yes, the ironhead engine tops the powerful shovelhead engines with its consistency, better reliability, and performance.
Harley Davidson brought the ironhead and shovelhead engines almost at the same time. However, the ironhead engine was better in terms of consistency and dependability. Unlike the shovelhead engine, it didn’t see any overheating and leakage problems. Plus, these were the last two engines of Harley that the manufacturer didn’t design with computer assistance.
The Evolution engine ultimately replaced both engines. Yet, ironhead and shovelhead engines are famous for their unique design that was much more advanced than their competitors.